Volume 14, no. 4
Pages 20-32

Development thrust of adaptation and sports training individualization is based on the information material obtained from set of sports-related sciences: physiology, theories and principled of sports training, biomechanics, psychophysiology, genetics, molecular biology, humanology etc., as well as on efficient sports training techniques involving advanced recovery, balanced multiple-meal diet and pharmacologic body support. High performance sports challenges an athlete to achieve elite performance indicators determined by complex of phenotypes formed under the action of ecological and genetic factors. According to T. Rankinen et al., achieving an elite sports status involves several genetic factors. So far, 20 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are known to be associated with elite sports status. However, it is not clear whether genetic variations and combinations are important at certain vector of muscular actions (concerning mainly endurance, strength and speed-strength characteristics). An athlete attains polygenic profile suitable for mitochondrial biogenesis that does not depend on his phenotypic abilities if he is specially trained for chosen race distance. This brings up the question of individualization of sports training process. Individualization problem is based on system-synergetic concept of management under conditions of sports training, state diagnostics and recovery.

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