Volume 14, no. 4
Pages 20-32

Development thrust of adaptation and sports training individualization is based on the information material obtained from set of sports-related sciences: physiology, theories and principled of sports training, biomechanics, psychophysiology, genetics, molecular biology, humanology etc., as well as on efficient sports training techniques involving advanced recovery, balanced multiple-meal diet and pharmacologic body support. High performance sports challenges an athlete to achieve elite performance indicators determined by complex of phenotypes formed under the action of ecological and genetic factors. According to T. Rankinen et al., achieving an elite sports status involves several genetic factors. So far, 20 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are known to be associated with elite sports status. However, it is not clear whether genetic variations and combinations are important at certain vector of muscular actions (concerning mainly endurance, strength and speed-strength characteristics). An athlete attains polygenic profile suitable for mitochondrial biogenesis that does not depend on his phenotypic abilities if he is specially trained for chosen race distance. This brings up the question of individualization of sports training process. Individualization problem is based on system-synergetic concept of management under conditions of sports training, state diagnostics and recovery.

Full text


1. Aksenov V.V., Tazendinov I.G. [On Assessment of the State of Chrono-and Inotropic Function of the Heart at Different Degrees of Physical Fitness of the Organism]. Fiziologiya cheloveka [Human Physiology], 1995, vol. 11, pp. 96–106. (in Russ.)
2. Aksenov V.V. Regulyatsiya chastoty i sily serdechnykh sokrashcheniy u begunov na srednie distantsii [Regulation of Frequency and Severity of Heart Rate in Middle Distance Runners. Lecture]. Omsk, Chelyabinsk OGNFK Publ., 1987. 12 p.
3. Anisimov E.A. [Innovative Method of Athletic Training Middle Distance Runners]. Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kul'tury [Theory and Practice of Physical Culture], 2011, no. 2, pp. 69–71. (in Russ.)
4. Volkov N.I., Neksi E.N., Osipenko A.D. Biokhimiya myshechnoy deyatel'nosti [Biochemistry of Muscle Activity]. Kiev, Olympic Literature Publ., 2000. 503 p.

5. Gavrilov E.A. Stressornoe serdtse. Stressornaya kardiomiopatiya [Stressor Heart. Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy]. Moscow, Soviet Sport Publ., 2007. 195 p.
6. Dirty A.V. Osobennosti vosstanovleniya sekretornoy aktivnosti pishchevaritel'nykh zhelez posle deystviya myshechnoy nagruzki. Avtoref. dokt. dis. [Peculiarities of the Secretory Activity of the Digestive Glands after the Action of Muscular Exercise. Abstract of Doct. Diss.]. Chelyabinsk, 2011. 47 p.
7. Dembo A.G., Zemtsovsky E.V. [A New Study of the Circulatory System of Athletes]. Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kul'tury [Theory and Practice of Physical Culture], 1986, no. 11, pp. 42–45. (in Russ.)
8. Zemtsovsky E.V. Sportivnaya kardiologiya [Sports Cardiology]. St. Petersburg, Hippocrates Publ., 1995. 195 p.
9. Zemtsovsky E.V., Sal'nikov E.M. [Electrocardiographic Diagnosis of Myocardial Hypertrophy with Regard to the Type of Circulation]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov PNNL [Collected Scientific Works PNNL]. Leningrad, GDOIFK them. PF Lesgafta Publ., 1986, pp. 72–77. (in Russ.)
10. Isaev A.P., Erlikh V.V. Polifunktsional'naya mobil'nost' i variabel'nost' organizma sportsmenov olimpiyskogo rezerva v sisteme mnogoletney podgotovki. Monografiya [Multifunctional Mobility and Variability of Athletes of Olympic Reserve in the Years of Preparation. Monograph]. Chelyabinsk, South Ural St. Univ. Publ., 2010. 503 p.
11. Isaev A.P. Strategiya adaptatsii cheloveka. Uchebnoe posobie [Strategy of Human Adaptation: a Tutorial]. Tyumen, Tyumen St. Univ. Publ., 2003. 248 p.
12. Kassil G.N. Adaptatsiya k sportivnoy deyatel'nosti v svete neyro- gumoral'no-gormonal'noy regulyatsii [Adapting to Sporting Activities in the Light of Neuro Humoral-Hormonal Regulation]. Moscow, Physiology of Sport Publ., 1986. 93 p.
13. Lindiger K.I., Holleberg H.K. [As Elite Skiers Adapt to Different Double Periodic Supports from Low to High Speeds?]. Evropeyskiy zhurnal prikladnoy fiziologii [European Journal of Applied Physiology], 2011, no. 111, pp. 1103-1111. (in Russ.)
14. Lichagina S.A. Fiziologicheskie mekhanizmy adaptatsii uchashchikhsya k fizicheskim nagruzkam zdorov'esberegayushchey napravlennosti. Kand. Diss. [Physiological Mechanisms of Adaptation of Students to Physical Activity Health-Orientation. Cand. Sci. Diss.]. Kurgan, 2002. 165 p.
15. Marie R., Grenner D., Mace P. Biokhimiya cheloveka [Biochemistry Rights], english translation. Moscow, World Bean Publ., 2003. 372 p.
16. Newsome P., Young A. Effektivnoe plavanie [Efficient Voyage], english translation. Moscow, Mann, Ivanov and Ferber Publ., 2013. 400 p.
17. Romanov Y.N. Osobennosti dolgovremennoy adaptatsii kikbokserov v sisteme integral'noy podgotovki. Dokt. Diss. [Features Long Adaptation Kickboxers in the Integrated Training. Doct. Sci. Diss.]. Chelyabinsk, 2014. 265 p.
18. Wilmore J.H., Costilla D.L. Fiziologiya sporta i dvigatel'noy aktivnosti [Physiology of Sport and Motor Activity]. Kiev, Olympic Literature Publ., 1997. 503 p.
19. Shebshaevich L.G., Alekseev A.A. Zhizn' – kiberneticheskaya mediko-biologicheskaya sistemnost' [Life – Cybernetic Biomedical Systematic]. Moscow, Triad Plus Publ., 2001. 608 p.
20. Erlikh V.V. Sistemno-sinergeticheskie integratsii v samoregulyatsii gomeostaza i fizicheskoy rabotosposobnosti cheloveka v sporte. Monografiya [System-Integration Synergies in the Self-Regulation of Homeostasis and Physical Human Performance in Sport. Monograph]. Chelyabinsk, South Ural St. Univ. Publ., 2012. 228 p.
21. Eynon H., Birk R., Meccel Y. Physiological Variables and Mitochondrial-Related Genotypes of an Athlete Who Excels in Both Short and Long-Distance Running. Mitochondrial. Jornal. Homerade, 2011, vol. 11, pp. 774–777.
22. Ostrander E.A., Huson H.J, Ostrander G.K. Genetics of Athletic Performance. Ann Rev. Gen. Hum. Genet, 2009, vol. 12, pp. 407–429.
23. Rankinen T., Roth S.M., Loos M.S., Perusse L. Advances in Exercise, Fitness and Performance Genomics. Med. Sci. Exer, 2010, vol. 42, pp. 835–846.